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River rocks are known to everybody because of their abundance and smooth and round form. However, few people know what rocks and minerals they are composed of and what processes make them so streamlined.
A river rock is a natural stone that has been smoothed and shaped by the flow of water in a river. River rocks are mostly made of granite, gneiss, quartzite, and sandstone. Abrasion is a process of continuing rocks smoothing by water and by other rocks, making them smooth and round.
Can you imagine that glaciers shaped some river rocks? Both liquid and frozen water can warn away even the hardest minerals and the most compacted rocks! The results are incredible!
Nature does the whole work altering huge rocks into large boulders and small pebbles ready to be used for paving, drainage, and decorative purposes. Let’s learn what minerals and rocks can be found in river rocks and the main agents and forces that create river rocks.
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Where Do River Rocks Come From
River rocks are fascinating. They attract people by their smooth surface and rounded form. Holding this rock evokes the question of how nature could do such scrupulous work on tumbling tons of hard rocks. This is a true example of nature’s patience.
River rocks are natural formations and come from rivers and streams. Initially, river rocks were just common rocks, which got into rivers or streams, became a part of the water flow, and began to abrade, losing their sharp ages. Eventually, the hard rock gets its smooth form and becomes a river rock.
The river rock formation is a vital part of the rock cycle. A combination of weathering and abrasion processes disintegrates any primary rock (igneous, metamorphic, or sediment), creating sediments, which are not still sedimentary rock but only at the beginning of new sedimentary rock formation.
Is River Rock a Natural Stone
Looking at a perfectly smooth river rock, it is hard o believe it is made exclusively by nature. It crystallized a rock from the melt, crushed it, and smoothed and polished it to create magnificent landscapes of river rock beaches.
River rock is a natural stone. It is formed of any common hard rock (mostly igneous or magmatic) by erosion and abrasion as water flows over and shapes rock chunks. The stones are not manufactured or processed artificially or with the help of any human intervention.
River rocks are natural stones. Because of their smooth surface and similar sorted sizes, they are widely used in construction, paving, and decoration.
River rocks are famous among people who prefer natural and eco-friendly materials. Nature tried to break these rocks, but they were harder and withstand. So, these rocks are highly preferable in construction. They are safe and durable.
TIP: Rivers are often great places for rockhounding. You can find there a lot of beautiful rare rocks. Check out the most common rocks you can find in or near rivers in the article below:
10 Most Common Types of Rocks You Can Find In Rivers
What Kind of Stone is River Rock
River rocks come in various shapes and sizes. Their composition strongly depends on the local geology. Most river rocks are found in mountainous or near mountain regions which are a source of hard rock material and have steep slopes and rapid elevation changes for the gravity factor.
In contrast, lowlands and dry (arid) areas lack river rocks because of the absence of material and no elevation gradient.
River rock is a type of natural stone that can be made up of various rock types. River rock comprises granite, gneiss, quartzite, sandstone, basalt, and conglomerate. These are hard and tough rocks composed of hard minerals like quartz, minerals of the feldspar group, and pyroxene.
Most river rocks are extremely hard. Crystalline igneous rocks, microcrystalline metamorphic rocks, and fine-grained sedimentary rocks commonly represent them.
Some common types of rock that can be found in river rocks include:
- Granite – a hard, crystalline igneous rock,
- Basalt – a dark-colored fine-grained igneous rock,
- Quartzite – a hard metamorphic rock that was originally pure quartz sandstone,
- Sandstone – a sedimentary rock that is composed mainly of sand-sized grains,
- Shale – a fine-grained sedimentary rock,
- Schist – a medium- to coarse-grained metamorphic rock,
- Conglomerate – a sedimentary rock made of cemented rounded pebbles and gravel.
You will rarely meet river rocks made of limestone because of the low hardness of minerals and the fragility of the shells it is made of.
The main factor that defines river rock composition is the hardness of the minerals they are composed of. Hardness is the ability to withstand scratching. You can refer to the Mohs scale and check what minerals are soft and what are the hardest.
The hardest minerals like topaz, corundum, and diamond, which represent 8, 9, and 10 on the Mohs scale, are not rock-forming minerals, while quartz (7) is one of the most common minerals. So, almost always, you will find quartz of different sizes in river rocks.
Minerals that are commonly found in river rocks are:
- Minerals of the feldspar group (albite, oligoclase, andesine, labradorite, bytownite, anorthite, and potassium feldspars)
TIP: A Mohs hardness test is one of the most valuable tricks that should be in all rockhounds’ playbooks. Check out my 3 top picks for Mohs hardness test kits in the article below:
3 Best Mohs Scale Test Kits: Test Hardness of Your Gemstones
What Makes River Rocks Smooth and Round
River rock smoothing and rounding is a long-term process that requires several agents. They are essentially water, wind, ice, and gravity.
A process called abrasion makes rocks smooth and round. This process is complex and occurs when rocks and other materials are transported and worn down by the movement of water, ice, wind, or gravity. Other vital factors are the speed of a water stream and the duration of abrasion.
Rocks become smooth and round through a process called abrasion. Abrasion occurs during rock transportation via river stream.
Rocks, driven by water flow, collide with each other and the bottom and sides of the river. These collisions cause small pieces of the rock to break off, gradually making the rocks smaller and smoother.
Over time, the constant movement of water and the repeated collisions with other rocks and sediment wear the rock down even more, rounding their edges and smoothing their surfaces.
Another process that can make rocks smooth and round is called attrition. Attrition happens when rocks rub against each other and wear down the rough edges.
This process can be seen in rivers and streams where the rocks have been transported downstream and moved around by the water flow. This can happen similarly in the ocean, where waves and currents move the rocks around.
Both abrasion and attrition are natural processes that happen over a long time and can affect any rock, but is more common with softer rocks like limestone and sandstone.
TIP: Gemstones are rare treasures that can be found in natural environments worldwide. Check out valuable tips on finding beautiful rocks in nature in the article below:
8 Tips On Finding Gemstones In Nature (Rivers & Creeks)
Why Does Moving Water Make Rocks Smooth
Moving water makes rocks smooth through the process of abrasion. During abrasion, rocks constantly interact with water flow, transporting other smaller sediments and particles. These particles collide with a rock, like sandpaper, and wear away sharp edges, making a rock smooth.
Water primarily provides energy for rock movement. It rubs rock boulders with each other, with smaller debris, and with a river bed. Water without other rocks added is much slower than water with sediments. Water flows over rocks and carries sediment and other particles with it.
As the water moves, it collides with the rocks, and the sediment and particles in the water act like tiny hammers, chipping away at the surface of the rocks. Over time, this constant collision and erosion wears down the rough edges of the rocks and makes them smooth.
Three essential factors influence smoothing. They are:
- Speed of water
- Volume of water
Faster-moving water, such as in a river or stream, can erode rocks more quickly than slower-moving water, such as in a lake or pond.
Similarly, a larger volume of water can erode rocks more quickly than a smaller volume.
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- Smithsonian Handbooks: Rocks & Minerals
- Gemstone & Crystal Properties (Quick Study Home)
- Ultimate Explorer Field Guide: Rocks and Minerals (National Geographic Kids)
How River Rocks Are Formed
The river rock formation is an integral part of the rock cycle. It takes several steps and comprises several factors.
The natural erosion and abrasion processes in rivers and streams form river rocks. At first, rocks on hills are weathered. Then rocks come to rivers and are smoothed due to abrasion. When a stream slows down, river rocks of similar size and level of smoothness are deposited together.
- The first step is to disintegrate rocks massifs. The process begins with the weathering of rock on hills and mountains, caused by factors such as heat, cold, rain, and freeze-thaw cycles.
- Transportation is the second step. Rocks come to a river or stream because of gravity’s influence. Being in active water flow, rocks are severely abraded and smoothed.
- Deposition. As the river continues to flow, the smaller rocks, sand, and sediment are carried downstream and deposited along the riverbed. Additionally, during the last step, sorting takes place. The larger rocks (boulders) that are too heavy to be carried away by the water are left behind. The smaller rocks (gravel) are still moved down the stream. Over time, these deposits can build up and form a rock, gravel, and sand layer.
TIP: Rock collectors know how hard it is to find those perfect specimens for tumbling. Check out the best places in nature to find rocks for tumbling in the article below:
7 Best Places to Find Rocks for Tumbling in Nature
How Long Does It Take for Water to Smooth a Rock
It is a matter of discussion how long it takes to smooth a rock. The main restriction limiting a response is the presence of numerous factors, which gives strikingly different time calculation results.
Water to smooth rock takes a few years to several thousands of years. The time it takes firmly depends on the type of rock, the volume, the stream speed, and the weather conditions. Soft marble and sandstone are smoothed faster. Granite and basalt smoothing process takes thousands of years.
The stream speed and the volume of water
The volume and speed of the water play a role in how quickly a rock can be smoothed. Faster-moving water, such as in a river or stream, can erode rocks more quickly than slower-moving water, such as in a lake or pond. Similarly, a larger volume of water can erode rocks more quickly than a smaller volume.
The type of rock
For softer rocks like limestone and sandstone, it can happen relatively quickly, taking only a few years or decades for the water to smooth rock. For harder rocks such as granite, the process can take much longer, possibly hundreds or thousands of years.
The weather conditions
The weather conditions also play a role in the process, as the temperature changes, rain, and freeze-thaw cycles can cause the rock to crack and break, making it easier for the water to erode the surface.
Chemical weathering can also have an impact on the surface of the rocks. Limestone, marble, and gypsum are the most susceptible rocks to chemical weathering.
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River rocks are formed through the natural processes of erosion and sedimentation that occur in rivers and streams. They are smoothed and rounded by the constant movement of water and repeated collisions with other rocks and sediment through abrasion and attrition.
Weathering breaks down rock into smaller pieces, which are carried downstream by the flow of the river, eroding the channel and depositing sediment along the riverbed.
Over time, these deposits build up, forming a rock, gravel, and sand layer. The larger rocks are left behind; smaller rocks are transported further down the stream.
River rocks are composed of hard and durable igneous and metamorphic rocks mostly. The most common rocks are granite, gneiss, quartzite, sandstone, and conglomerate.
Minerals that make up river rocks are represented mainly by:
- feldspar group minerals (potassium feldspar, albite, labradorite, oligoclase),
- pyroxenes, and
The time it takes for water to smooth a rock can vary widely, depending on the type of rock, the volume and speed of the water, the weather conditions, and other factors, but it can take from a few years to several thousands of years.
TIP: The most common situation all rock hunters and mineral collectors deal with is at-home mineral identification. Find out the step-by-step guide in the article below:
Identifying Minerals and Rocks at Home (Step-by-Step Guide)